Ponzi schemes galore: 23,000 YouTube videos show investment scams are not just for the rich and famous: Internet Scambusters #338
We might think of Ponzi schemes — investment frauds that rely
on ever-increasing inflows of cash — as scams targeted only at
wealthy people and organizations.
But 23,000 Ponzi-type videos on YouTube testify that we’re all
in the scammers’ sights.
In this week’s issue, we show why Ponzi schemes are on the
increase and what you can do to avoid being snared.
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Let’s get started…
The Top 10 Ways to Avoid Being Sucked into a Ponzi Scheme
With the scale and some of the high profile names associated
with the collapsed $50 billion Ponzi scheme run by Bernard
Madoff, it’s easy to think that these scams target just the
rich and the famous — or at least only people and
organizations with big bucks.
Ponzi schemes — which pay “investors” inflated returns out of
their own or new money plowed in by other suckers, until the
whole thing collapses — are all around us.
They’re perhaps the biggest type of investment scam there is,
and they suck in just about everyone from sports stars and
major charities to individual retirees and “mom and pop”
businesses looking to invest their profits.
(You can read more about Ponzis and the crook for whom they’re
named in this Scambusters first article, and about other
investment scams in the second one.)
The really bad news is that the Ponzi scam situation is
getting worse. It’s “Ponzimonium” out there!
Fraud investigators report record numbers of these “robbing
Peter to pay Paul” scams. And according to the Better Business
Bureau, there are at least 23,000 of them being promoted online
in YouTube videos!
Even without Madoff, Ponzi schemes that reach the courts are
reckoned to cost investors globally almost $10 billion a year.
Some of these scams are tiny by Madoff standards — “mini
Madoffs” as one commentator described them. They invite
investments of just $150 upwards — but if you don’t have much
money, that can still be a lot to lose.
Many of them too are more “pyramid” and “gifting” schemes of
the sort discussed in the articles mentioned above.
Here, we’re going to stick with a stricter definition of a
Ponzi scam as a scheme in which a single person or organization
offers extraordinary rates of return in an investment, usually
in hedge funds, stocks, commodities, currencies, real
estate/timeshare, or Certificates of Deposit (CDs).
Ironically, the accelerating collapse of Ponzi schemes and
the mushrooming numbers of similar new scams are both related
to the same thing — the recession.
Ponzi schemes only work when there’s more money coming in than
The scammers depend on two factors to keep this going –
current investors are so enchanted by the profits they think
they’re earning that they keep reinvesting them (so the scammer
never has to pay out); and new investors are drawn in by what
they see others apparently earning.
It’s all a lie of course. The Ponzians are merely keeping most
of the money for themselves, and using the rest to lull their
victims into a false sense of security.
That is, until recession-hit investors start trying to
withdraw their money at the same time as the supply of
newcomers dries up.
That’s what happened with Madoff and at least 20
multi-million-dollar scams that have been exposed in the first
six months after he went under in late 2008.
And that says nothing of the hundreds of other schemes that
are too small to merit even a paragraph or two in the local
As investing guru Warren Buffett says, it’s “only when the
tide goes out that you learn who’s been swimming naked.”
But — and here’s the scary thing — the global economic
nose dive that’s taking down Ponzi schemes with it is also
encouraging more crooks than ever to set up new ones.
Why? Because people who lose their jobs often get a payoff
from their employer, which they want to invest; second,
because, with savings institutions offering paltry interest
rates of just a couple of percent (at best), investors who’ve
pulled their money out of the stock market or the bank are
looking for better returns.
In fact, one of the most recently-discovered Ponzi schemes
claimed it was actually linked to the government’s Troubled
Asset Relief Program (TARP) and that investors’ cash would go
into debt backed by the federal $750 billion rescue program.
This supposed TARP scheme offered what seemed to be a solid
investment with a return of 12.5%.
But many Ponzi schemes offer returns so outrageously high –
10% a month is not unusual — that common sense should tell you
it’s a scam.
Yet people continue to invest. As one expert put it, “greed
So, how can you ensure you don’t get snared in a Ponzi scheme?
Here’s our list of the top 10 things to do (or not do) or
watch out for.
Don’t be tempted by high returns. Legal or not, just about
all investment returns are related to risk — the higher, the
riskier. Even in the world of legitimate investment, it’s best
never to put money at high risk that you can’t afford to lose.
Consult a third party, like an unconnected broker or
financial adviser, about any unusual or high-return investment
you are considering. It won’t guarantee you safety but may
reduce the risk of being caught out.
Don’t be fooled into believing an investment is safe just
because someone you know recommended it. href="http://www.scambusters.org/financialliteracy.html">Affinity
they’re called, are one of the favorite methods used to lure
people into Ponzi schemes.
Don’t put all your eggs into one basket. Diversify! Spread
your money across different investments. And even consider
working with several brokers or investment advisers.
Examine the track record of the individual/organization.
Are their financial claims independently audited? Is their
performance record realistic? And does one person seem to
dominate the organization?
Also, review the lifestyle of the key figure behind the
scheme. Many Ponzi scheme perpetrators turn out to have
expensive taste for things like antiques, yachts, multiple
homes and even sports teams. Check out their background –
easier than ever to do online.
Beware of vague and unsubstantiated statements, both about
the financial performance of the business and the actual
Many Ponzi crooks claim their technique is secret,
confidential or too complex for outsiders to understand. Bottom
line: don’t invest if you don’t understand.
If you’re a member of a particular ethnic, religious or
disability community, be particularly wary of supposed schemes
claiming to be specifically structured for people like you.
Again, it’s another favorite Ponzi trick.
Get as much information as possible in writing — details
of the offer, names of validating organizations, the
organization’s own research documentation, and copies of any
contracts you will be asked to sign. Most Ponzi schemes are
shallow in this area. Check what you do receive for poor
grammar or confusing wording.
Finally, a good anti-scam catch-all that we always stress:
be skeptical. Don’t take at face value claims that
organizations are officially backed or licensed by or with
investment authorities, or that they are endorsed by any
particular organization. Says who?
If you suspect you’re in a Ponzi scheme, or you already know
you’re a victim, you should get immediate, independent
financial advice and, if appropriate, contact the Federal
Trade Commission and/or law enforcement.
(We at Scambusters cannot and do not provide financial advice.)
Unfortunately, past experience suggests the best you are
likely to get back, once the whole thing collapses, could be
around 10 cents on the dollar — if you’re lucky. Also, if the
scammer files for bankruptcy, the Bankruptcy Agent is legally
entitled to call on past investors to pay back any returns
they’ve received in the prior year.
With Ponzi schemes, everything ultimately comes back to Item
#1 in our list above. Even a 10% annual return (which is what
Madoff offered) should be enough to set the alarm bells ringing
Can we ever learn the lesson of relying on common sense in
place of greed?
Well, consider this: Even after scammer Charles Ponzi was
jailed in the 1920s for his racket, supposedly linked to
profiteering on international postage coupons, people still
sent money to him in his prison cell, hoping to cash in. Yikes!
Time to conclude for today — have a great week!